Articles

Ideas and Hypotheses

Controlled compression and rupture of the cord – the way of energy.

on Saturday, 13 May 2017 06:08.


 

At the dawn of the development of fusion energy was proposed to carry out a reaction in a powerful bit cord plasma.

 

However, it soon became clear the following facts. 

1.In the course of the discharge was independent cord compression current.

2.There is instability of various types, which tore the cord. 

3.In the process, were observed neutron yield.

4.Energy yield of the reaction was small. 

Introduction to the design of different magnetic coils to stabilize the plasma did not lead to breakthrough solutions.

Analysis of the reaction showed that the resulting neutrons were not thermonuclear. In the course of a spontaneous rupture of the cord due to instabilities arise a powerful self-induced EMF. Ions of the plasma accelerated by this field and engage in nuclear reactions with atoms and ions of the plasma. Rupture of the cord is too fast, energy stood out a little. 

There could be a reaction to several other principles. 

1. To produce controlled compression and rupture of the cord the external magnetic field.

2. To abandon the use of large currents. 3. To increase the density of the plasma.

Diagram of the proposed device.

 

 

1 - discharge tube; 2 - solenoid " + " the direction of the current from the observer, "-" - direction of the current at the observer; 3 - electrodes; 4 - ballast the active resistance of the inductive type; 5 - high-voltage transformer.

The unit between the two electrodes (3) located at opposite ends of the discharge tube (1), burning arc discharge. The arc discharge is maintained by the thermionic emission of charged particles (electrons) from the electrode surface. Discharge current limited by the ballast (4). Voltage igniting the arc the medium flows from the transformer (5) 

Source materials to create electrodes (3) are used primarily refractory metals: tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, platinum, and metals of transition groups: chromium, niobium, hafnium.

The tube is filled with a gas mixture containing deuterium, tritium and lithium. 

The mechanism of action is.

With the help of a transformer (5) is the ignition of the arc. A prolonged pre-heating of the electrodes (3) and plasma (minutes). It facilitates the emission of electrons from the electrodes and stable burning. 

Then at the solenoid (2) is fed a current pulse. In the coil-solenoid plasma is compressed, and the discharge is broken. There is a powerful self-induced EMF that accelerates the ions. Nuclear reactions occur in the gas-discharge tube. Then (without any external assistance!) going on a self-sustained recovery of the arc. Again, is supplied a current pulse to the solenoid, again, shrinks and breaks the cord, again there is a EMF, accelerate ions, there is a reaction. Again self-ignited discharge.

Cord is torn at the time of the order of microseconds. Recovery is similar. If feeding the coil of the solenoid tearing pulse with a frequency of about 1000 (why not 10000?) for a second, it is possible to provide the energy yield of the reaction is greater than cost. The low energy for a single impulse is added per second to every conceivable. 

Advantages of the proposed method.

1. The exceptional simplicity of design.

2. The ability to increase the density of the plasma. 

3. The entire plasma volume is not involved in the compression process.

4. The ability to create a large magnetic field in a small volume. 

5. The continuity of the process.

6. The ease of controlling the frequency (thus energy release), the plasma density and power. 

7. Low currents.

8. No loss on heating of the plasma. 

9. Increase the self-induction EMF with inductive ballast active resistance to the specified value.

Intuitively it is assumed that it is still necessary to limit the volume of the compression chamber and break the cord. It is therefore proposed to make in the discharge chamber narrowing.

 

 

1 - discharge tube; 2 - solenoid " + " the direction of the current from the observer, "-" - direction of the current at the observer; 3 - electrodes; 4 - ballast the active resistance of the inductive type; 5 - high-voltage transformer; 6 - technological contraction . 

Checking of the proposed design can be implemented on any glass fluorescent lamp. For the rapid recovery of the arc discharge, it is recommended to raise the voltage on the electrodes. The neutron yield in a lamp will not be exact, but the process will go! 

The cost of such expertise shall not exceed festive pastime.

REACTOR RADIOACTIVE DECAY

on Friday, 12 May 2017 03:20.

 

 Decay of some nuclei by absorption of neutrons, this principle is the whole nuclear energy. However, the synthesis of nuclei releases more energy per nucleon than nuclear fission, but for many decades in this way there is no decisive success – there is no commercial reactors of thermonuclear synthesis.

Radioactive decay of isotopes cannot contribute to the chain reaction. Alpha particles, electrons, positrons, gamma rays – these decomposition products do not lead to the collapse of adjacent elements and chain reaction.

Not found the factors influencing radioactive decay. No temperature, no magnetic field or electric field does not accelerate the reaction.

The effect of temperature on the rate of radioactive disintegration is checked thoroughly at temperatures achievable on earth is thousands of degrees. During the transition to temperatures of millions of degrees is absolutely not confirmed!

Easiest check can be done with the accelerated ions by bombarding a target with radioactive material. Changing the accelerating potential, it is possible to find the limit at which will manifest itself in an accelerated decay of a radioactive isotope taken.

Recall that the energy of a charged particle, accelerated to 1 eV, equivalent to the energy of the particle heated up to 11000 degrees. The ions, accelerated by a voltage of 1000 Volts will have the energy, and heated up to 11 000 000 degrees particles. With 10,000 Volts - 110 000 000 degrees. Even 100,000 Volts now familiar tension for laboratories, this corresponds to 1 100 000 000 degrees! More than a billion degrees – not every star has this temperature! Can't this temperature does not influence radioactive decay! All - radioactive isotope at impact at this temperature, stirred up, like a rotten egg, and it will take off the excess particles.

If to solve the problem of accelerated decay, it is possible to involve a large quantity of nuclear waste in power generation.

You know how in x-ray apparatus bombard the anode the electrons? When those currents that flow in installation and the energies that carry electrons, anode melting and evaporation is inevitable. Therefore, the anode is rotated. The discharge current is therefore "spread" over a large surface of the anode, and its damage does not occur.

The screen of the CRT TV are bombarding the electrons with energy of 25 000 electron volts. And nothing is terrible. First, because the electrons (the beam) are deployed across the surface of the screen (therefore the energy per unit area is small and the screen has time to cool). Second, because the current of electrons is small. But sometimes, when the system breaks down deflection of the beam, and the beam has at one point, for example, in the center, it burns the surface of the screen, and forever, beyond repair.

So, the author imagines the reactor the radioactive elements that way.

Fig.1

 


1-anode; 2 - ionization chamber; 3 - the external ionization source; 4 electrode grid; 5 - horizontal deflection plates; 6 - vertically deflecting plates; 7 - the cathode target; 8 - sealed tube.

As ions (as a rule) are positively charged, the target must submit a negative accelerating potential.

The cathode target "7" is a plate of durable and refractory material, e.g., tungsten. Inside this plate are tubes, which pumped cooler coolant. The cathode is placed in a sealed tube "8". The tube is filled with radioactive gas at low pressure.

From the side opposite to the cathode the anode is "1". At the anode ionization chamber is "2". In this chamber is the ionization of the gas by an external source "3" (high frequency, ultraviolet).

Near the ionization chamber is a first cathode grid is "4". He pulls the ions from the ionization chamber, prevents the drifting (diffusion) of electrons in the accelerating tube and may serve to control the flow of ions.

Between the ionization chamber and the cathode are control electrodes deflecting the beam of ions as horizontally "5" and the vertical "6".

Of the ionization chamber ions are accelerated and stretched by the applied voltage. The beam is unfolding all over the target area due to the alternating voltage fed to the deflecting electrodes.

It is desirable to use the focusing system – electric or magnetic.

Selection of radioactive substances.

Is to the substance, the radioactive decay emit only charged high-energy particles – then drastically reduced the requirements for protection from radiation. Neutrons and gamma rays go a long way in matter and require more massive.

The substance must be gaseous compounds or low boiling point. (For example, a fluoride of uranium). In the case of complex chemical compounds, of course, you should perform which of the polarity of ions formed. Preferred positively charged ions only! Then will not accelerate the electrons, which will take care of 99 percent conductivity.

Maybe at a certain ion energy will not occur characteristic radioactive decay, and the decay of a very different kind. Wonderful discoveries await researchers!

The list of known isotopes so wide that ensures tremendous freedom of choice.

There are many developed accelerators of protons and ions. But no one dared to use as the accelerated particles, the radioactive material is deliberately meant to make the dangerous background in the accelerator and make it unfit for further use.

But, according to the author, does not require complex and expensive accelerators! They must be extremely simple and unpretentious.

To control the decay rate of radioactive isotopes by the voltage on the acceleration electrodes can be the reactor easier? According to the author, at these energies the decay of certain isotopes will be immediate, or the speed of his rise into the millions. time. Then mankind will get rid of energy dependence.

The goal is so big that it is worth to experiment, to try, to try.

Everything will change, but not for the worse! Security will increase, energy will be more (infinitely more!), the availability of energy in any remote area will lead to progress in resettlement, everybody will be richer only because will be able to manage a huge energy!

The goal is worthy! Prospects are enormous.

 

 

 

Black light

on Friday, 12 May 2017 03:03.



Diffraction, that is, the deviation of the rays from a straight path when passing near the edges of the screen, can yield unexpected findings.

 


So look for the diffraction ring from the hole in the screen.

 


So look diffraction bands, if the hole is a narrow slit.

Explanation of alternating black and white stripes give: 1)Huygens ' principle - each point on the wave front is a source of waves; 2) the law of interference waves coming to one point from different sources interfere.

Fresnel proposed method of calculating the position of the black and white areas. (Now these zones are called Fresnel zones).

Now imagine that we slightly moved the screen to the received image. Zones will not disappear, they slightly expand. Again pushed the screen area has increased. That is, zones represent a certain conical surface, the apex of which is a hole in the screen (the light source).


     


         

 

Now imagine that we chose one black zone and released it outside the demo screen. The rest of the image does not pass through the screen.

 

So, we have a black ray, we know for sure that it is. But we do not see its manifestation.

 

The beam does not leave any marks on the photo paper.

 

It does not interact with the photocell (no current).

 

Black bands can also be obtained by interference from several holes or slits. But here you can find out that the rays that formed in this place, giving a black bar on the screen, did not displease each other! Because after pushing the screen (or removing the sources), you can see that after interference in a given dark band, the rays exit and in the future can interact with other rays to form light bands.

 

"Suppose such a" black light "falls on the photodiode. With one direction of the electric radiation vector in the photodiode circuit, there will be no current, and with the other, a current will flow. However, the transition of the pn must be set perpendicular to the direction of the electric vector. Now one layer of semiconductor is under another - you need another element. (It is doubtful: even such a sensitive reaction as the disintegration of silver bromide does not feel black light).

 

- Divide our beam into two parts and force them to pass different paths, and then fold again. Since there will be an infinite number of mismatches, the ray must become visible.

 

Let us pass through a substance in a powerful magnetic or electric field. The environment is asymmetric, so the phase mismatch must occur and the beam will become visible.

 

-In anisotropic media, in crystals, in mixtures of various materials with respect to refraction, there must be a mismatch.

 If the black light is difficult to think of an application, then the black radio wave somehow immediately finds application in radar. And this radar, which can not fix enemy funds. After reflection from the enemy aircraft, there will be a mismatch, a take-off of the phases of the waves. The black radio wave will turn into the ordinary one. And this reflected (normal!) Radio signal can receive a passive receiver. The impression is that if the aircraft itself emits a radio wave, it becomes a source of radiation, and the pilot can not detect the radar.

 

Intuitively, it can be assumed that the black radio wave has a greater permeability than the usual one. Indeed, a conventional radio wave displaces electrons (if a conductor is on the way) or shakes atoms and molecules (in a dielectric), this takes energy away. This has an attenuating, damping effect on the wave. In the black radio wave, the amplitudes are opposite, so no effect is produced. But since there is nothing ideal, and many substances are anisotropic, then after a run in some matter some phase difference, a change in angles, a mismatch is formed. The black radio wave becomes ordinary, which can be fixed by available means.

  

You can "see" black light with interference. If from two sources separated by a certain distance two beams arrive at a given point and mutually cancel, then in the future they again diverge and manifest themselves in full.

 

In radio communication, the zones of silence have long been well studied. The absence of reception of a signal does not mean the disappearance of a wave. Just at this point, there are two oscillations of the inverse amplitudes, which will certainly manifest themselves in other conditions.

 

The large penetrating ability of black light can allow to show through details, structures, biological objects. (Replace the X-ray with a flashlight?)

 

You can try to use a black radio wave for closed communication, for detecting defects in metal products, and translucent depths.

 

We are used to treating a radio wave in space: in the air, in the environment, in space. Meanwhile, the best medium for radio wave propagation is a conductor. A significant, significant discovery, in the author's opinion, will be the transfer of huge energy through wires of a scanty section. Two high-frequency oscillations that lag behind one another for half a wave will pass along the conductor without any external effects: heating, magnetic field, interaction with other wires.

 

And how else can you get black light and a black radio wave?

 

Suppose we have a beam of plane polarized light or a radio wave. We divide it into two parts and force one part to fall behind the other on the floor of the wave, and then fold it again. There will be a visible redemption of the beam. But this does not mean that there are no rays in this place of space! Simply at this point, the amplitudes were opposite. If the rays met at some angle, and then again parted again, then each ray will manifest itself again.

 

Simple light sources or radio wave generators and can not closely compare with the quality of radiation with lasers and masers. Only on such devices can we ensure strict monochromaticity and coherence of radiation. And the effects there will be stunning.

 

A black laser beam of enormous power: what is it? Invisible to us, but under certain conditions suddenly exploding in space - this is a miracle! And, most likely, the piercing substance is like a neutrino, carrying energy that can not be measured by ordinary methods, not damped in matter! Perhaps this is a universal tool for sensing, energy transfer and communication. Light guides, through which a black ray is passed, can become not only a means of transmitting information, but also a means of transferring energy.

 

The properties of black radiation have not been studied at all. Who knows how much black radiation is in the universe and how does it behave?

 

Wonderful finds await the researchers!

 

 

 

 

 

Lenses there are gravitational and gaseous

on Friday, 12 May 2017 02:53.

 

Mirage over a hot road – a usual phenomenon. Mirages in the deserts, oases, lakes, distant cities may occur without polished mirrors and lenses. Consequently, jet and air layers without clear boundaries are a great influence on the rays of light. The sharper the difference of properties, the better the gas lens or mirror. It is remarkable that in the desert you can see the objects located hundreds of kilometers away from the observer. Therefore, the formation of waveguides with total internal reflection. And the quirkiness of such fibers allows you to see objects and inverted and combined with other images.

Even homogeneous in the chemical composition of the gas may be the lens if inside there are areas with different temperatures.

The refracted ray of light upon entering a medium with a different velocity of propagation is inevitable. No matter what the boundaries of these environments are blurred, fuzzy. When the lens of polished glass is placed in the air, everything is so beautiful and geometrically understandable, explicable. It is extremely difficult to take into account the refraction at the blurring of boundaries. Not a classic case of, dull, vague.

Astronomical observations in terrestrial conditions is difficult not only because of our atmosphere, but because the atmosphere is turbulent: the density fluctuations, the jet stream, winds, chemical inhomogeneity, the temperature difference makes the picture alive, trembling.

If you produce through a telescope shooting fast camera distant object, and then carefully examine the image in a slow rhythm, we should expect that there will be discovered such phenomena as lensing, change colors, change the position of an object, even a split.

In addition to gravitational lenses in the path of light waves can be other lenses. It is sufficient to recognize that in some place of the space the light is refracted from other causes, for example, from gas or dust clouds, then removed the question of it gravitational refraction.

It should be observed the decomposition of light into a spectrum. If there is dispersion (the difference in propagation speed for different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation), it is inevitable, and the decomposition of the spectrum. As soon as you accept that interstellar space is not empty, it contains particles and fields, and inevitably the recognition of the dispersion. Expansion of the range will depend on the shape of the cloud (region): we are not surprised that a window can't see the spectrum, and in a glass prism are seeing it.

The polarization of the light will occur if the path will meet the sources of electric or magnetic fields, if the medium through which light travels, ordered these fields. Even the negligible number of particles, which is in interstellar space, while flying several light-years is a serious influencing factor: the interstellar field oriented particles.

As known from geometrical optics, the refractive index is the ratio of the speed of light in the first medium (where the light falls) to the second (which includes the beam). Therefore, depending on the location of the light source can change the picture output. That is, not only the shape of the gas cloud will affect the outcome, but the presence of the radiation source in the cloud or behind the cloud.

It is expected that such will be discovered astronomical objects, the distance from which their sizes are in contradiction with results obtained in other ways. If, for example, the cloud is a scattering lens, the object will appear farther than it really is.

Than udalenie from us an object is, the greater the probability that the rays pass on their way through a cosmic lens, the more oddities you can find.

For the rays of some objects may complete (perhaps partial) reflection from the outer clouds. The mirror, similar in all respects objects in the Universe can be used to determine the location of the "reflectors".

Many consider the gravitational lens effect, the main proof of the existence of dark matter.

Acknowledging (or denying) the fact (or possibility) gas lens we can progress in understanding the picture of the universe.

To destroy space junk and create a new planet

on Thursday, 11 May 2017 14:30.

The force of interaction of two charges

F=kqq/R2

Where q is the charge, Coulomb; R - distance between charges, m; k - coefficient, equal to 9*109.

If you take charges in the amount of 1 C, at a distance of 1 meter the force of interaction is F=9*109 Newton.

If you increase the distance of a kilometer, the strength of the interaction will be 9*103 Newton.

Compare the gravitational force of interaction

F=Gmm/R2

Where G is the gravitational constant,6,67*10-11; m –mass, kg; R - distance , m.

If you take the mass of 1 kg at a distance of 1 meter the force of interaction is F=6,67*10-11 Newton. At a distance of 1 km F=6,67*10-17Newton.

I don't think about using gravitational forces.

Space debris does not bear charges, it is a neutral body: the debris of rockets, waste, dust, meteorites.

But any body in the electric field is polarized. If it is a conductive body on one surface Scopata electrons and the other ions will remain. If it is a dielectric, the dipoles will Orient so that the one closer to the surface charge will appear on the ends of the dipoles of the opposite sign. If it is a neutral gas, it will be such a deformation of its electron shells that the gas molecules become dipoles and turn to podnebennoy charged sides of the dipoles of the opposite sign.

The charge at the conducting wall, the dipole at a conducting wall, the dipole in the nonuniform electric field – these problems are considered and solved in physics thoroughly. A dipole, for example, is drawn into the region of maximum electric field, the charge is attracted to a conductive wall or the wall of the dielectric.

That is why the author proposes to collect space debris using electrostatic forces. For example, if the leakage of electrons from the outer body using a simple accelerator, soon the body will be charged and will begin to attract all of the body due to electrostatic induction.

Of course, in space sufficient ions, and they will be attracted to the accelerator, to adhere to him, to neutralize the charge. But ions are not so much in space. Will mainly adhere to the neutral gas. It will also be a screening charge, but to a lesser extent.

 

 In engines that are designed (have tested!), using the polluting substances due to electrical forces, be sure to take into account the need to maintain electrical neutrality. That is, if positive ions are discharged (after all, only the heavy particles can provide good traction), then be sure to reset and electrons.

For that purpose, which sets the author, a garbage collection is required just to keep the charge on the body.

The mechanism of action is as follows.

Electronic ray tube (the simplest example – an accelerator in the TV) is placed on the satellite to be decommissioned or authorized the destruction. The satellite has a solar battery or independent power source.

At a signal from the Ground the cannon begins to throw the electrons with energy of 10...100 Kev. And it does not matter where is the release of electrons towards the Earth or towards the open space. The mass of electrons is negligible, so any significant traction is expected.

 

The satellite begins to acquire a charge. Even with electronic current of 1 mA per thousand seconds, the satellite will acquire a charge in 1 Coulomb! At a voltage of 10 000 Volts will need a power of just 10 Watts. At a voltage of 100 000 Volts the power will be about 100 Watts!). Part of this charge will be neutralized by ions. The satellite orbital start to Deposit the gases to adhere to the shell, then create a cloud. This cloud can have tens to hundreds of meters (kilometers!) in cross-section. Since this cloud is associated with the satellite, it will begin to slow down the satellite.(By the way, not a way of braking the lander? Moreover, the braking will not need fuel, and take it with you when you de-orbit a bunch of junk.). In addition, the cloud will interfere with the free departure of the electrons. Therefore, preferably the accelerator is let go of the rope for a companion.

Over time will have to increase the accelerating voltage on the accelerator - after all, Sputnik is becoming more and more positive potential. But this potential will slow down the electrons and return them back. It seems that up to 5...10 million Volts will be able to get. For serious problems can be placed on extraterrestrial objects accelerators and 100 million Volts.

 

To increase the working area is recommended for unwinding companion metallized synthetic film, so it is possible to reduce the density of charge and increase capacitance.

Flying debris is polarized by the electric field and is attracted to the satellite. There is a change in the orbits of all the flying stuff. But at the same time and the braking of our satellite!

Sticking debris increases the mass of the satellite. This further slows down the satellite. For the time that has passed since the inclusion of electron gun, the satellite "established power relationship" with the huge amount of debris, dust and gas. His added mass is many times increased. But this increases the inertia of the satellite. He clearly is on a decline, but not as light body, as a body, burdened with a tail of garbage. In the end, the satellite enters into the dense layers, the battery charge disappears, and it burns in the atmosphere. The remaining trash or follows it, or change its orbit so that the combustion becomes inevitable.

The bombing of the satellite charged particles will lead to surface heating and possible damage. Such a satellite should be a desert, life will not be great.

Large debris or asteroids, you can set the boosters to charge these fragments with charges of opposite signs. It is billions of times will speed up the process of their sticking together. Cleaning meteoritemen tracks will work, and the enlargement of asteroids a necessity for the future of humanity.

Maybe I'll be able to create another planet or, at least, to facilitate the extraction of minerals. To be on the way, such as to Mars, intermediate base with a small but adequate gravity would be very tempting. Collect all the small planets (Pallas, Ceres, etc.) into one, to make terraforming. To select the asteroids in composition, in quantity of those substances which are necessary for production. The price of gold, platinum, silver, may be lower than the cost of aluminium and copper because these materials are urgently needed for the construction of elements of the base, and delivery of gold will cost more than his production on the Ground. 

You can trawl the space of two companions, charged with opposite signs. Even tens of kilometers between them will not be an obstacle to electric forces.

To have a long time ago in the hands of a tool that can create in space, miracles, and still not to use it - bewilderment, amazement, disappointment, regret - these feelings of the author!

The obvious cheapness of the project allows to implement it in any company that has a satellite in orbit. That's just what sing all the rest - a question. Charged satellite will have an impact not only on the space junk, but hundreds of working satellites. Inevitably, change of orbits, misalignment of the work, a violation of control. Noise rise - scary thought!.. 

But it will be then!